Infertility is not having the ability to conceive despite having frequent, unprotected sex for a minimum of a year for women aged less than 35 years or over six months if the woman is aged 35 or more. Both men and women are likely to possess fertility problems, one out of six couples in urban India face issues with infertility.
Causes for male infertility:
· Oligospermia (Low Sperm Count) It is estimated that a male should have an average sperm count above 15 million sperm per milliliter to be considered normal
· Abnormal sperm production or function because of genetic defects, undescended testicles, health problems like diabetes, or infections like chlamydia, gonorrhea, mumps, or HIV.
· Problems with the delivery of sperm because of structural problems, blockage within the testicle, sexual problems like premature ejaculation; certain genetic diseases, like cystic fibrosis, or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.
· A problem called varicocele -This happens when the veins on a man's testicle(s) are too large. This heats the testicles. The heat can affect the shape and number of sperms.
· Cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, anabolic steroids, and taking medications to treat bacterial infections, hypertension, and depression can also affect fertility.
· Frequent exposure to heat, like in saunas or hot tubs (the raised body temperature can affect sperm production).
Causes of female infertility
· Ovulation disorders: Hormonal disorders like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infertility in women which is a condition caused by a hormonal imbalance that results in a series of small cysts on the ovaries. Other hormonal factors that impact the discharge of eggs from the ovaries are Hyperprolactinemia, a condition in which you've got an excessive amount of prolactin — the hormone that stimulates breast milk production also interferes with ovulation. Either an excessive amount of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) or an insufficient thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) can affect the cycle or cause infertility. PCOS is the most common of these, causing 70 percent of irregular ovulation-related infertility cases.
· Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the uterus starts to grow in other places, like the ovaries, behind the uterus, or in the fallopian tubes causing blockages and preventing sperm and eggs to fertilize.
· Postponing pregnancy: Delaying pregnancy is a huge contributor to infertility. According to specialists, age is a growing cause of infertility. The peak reproductive age for a woman is in her 20s. Fertility (the ability to get pregnant) starts to decline in her 30s, once she reaches her mid-30s there is a rapid decline in fertility, getting pregnant naturally is unlikely for most women by age45.
· Uterine Fibroids: Non-cancerous (benign) tumors within the uterine wall (uterine fibroids) may cause infertility by blocking the fallopian tubes or stopping an embryo from implanting within the uterus.
· Inflammation of the Fallopian tube (salpingitis) can cause the blockage or it may damage the fallopian tube which is caused by pelvic disease, which in turn is caused by endometriosis, adhesions, or sexually transmitted diseases.
· Pelvic adhesions are bands of connective tissue that bind organs which will form after pelvic infection, appendicitis, endometriosis, or abdominal or pelvic surgery
· Primary ovarian insufficiency (early menopause): Primary ovarian insufficiency when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40.
Infertility is a major problem and one can address these problems by getting in touch with the specialists in this field.