Object-oriented programming V/S Functional programming-A clash in 2021

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MohitJha
Object-oriented programming V/S Functional programming-A clash in 2021

Programming languages are always tough to choose from. Especially due to the cost. But as each programming language is fabricated for different use it at least lowers the tension and confusion. There are a lot of programming languages available out there and each one is carved with precision for specific purposes. And as the trend for website designing company, software development, and android application development is tiding closer to the shore of human life, these are very much in usage.

Today our guests are Object-Oriented Programming and Functional Programming. One is mastered in software designing across the data structure and objects whereas the other is master of functional factors required for executing programming. We shall be discussing the differences between the two.

Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a PC programming model that sorts out a design of software around data & information, or objects, instead of functions and logic. An object here can be characterized as a data field that has extraordinary traits and behavior.

OOP centers around the articles that designers need to control rather than the rational and logic needed to control them. This way of programming is appropriate, complex and effectively updated or kept maintained.

Object-oriented programming is used in various fields such as designing an application or crafting a mobile application. As for other usages, OOP can also be used to design and make flow charts and other graphics-oriented elements for various purposes.

Features of OOPs:

Classes

Objects

Data Abstraction

Encapsulation

Inheritance

Polymorphism

What is Class?

A class represents a real-world entity that acts as a blueprint for all the objects to get to the milestone. We can create as many objects as we need using Class.

What is an Object?

An object-Oriented Programming system(OOP) is designed based on the concept of “Object”. It contains both variables (used for keeping the data) and methods(used for defining the behavior).

We can create any number of objects by using this class and all those objects will get the same fields and behaviors.

What is Abstraction?

Abstraction is a process where you view only “relevant” data and “hide” irrelevant unnecessary details of an object from the user.

What is Encapsulation?

A process of binding object fields and behaviors(methods) together in a single entity known as Class.

Since it surrounds both fields and methods in a class, it will be secured from outside access.

We can forbid access to the members of a class by using access modifiers such as non-public and public keywords.

When we make a class in Java, it means we are doing encapsulation.

Encapsulation helps us to get the re-usability of code without compromising any element of the security.

What is Inheritance?

One class comes into or acquires the properties of another class.

It provides the idea of reusability of codes and each sub-class depicts only those especially that are different to it, the rest of the features can be passed on from the parent class.

 

Inheritance is defining a new class based on an already existing class by extending its common data members and methods.

It allows us to reuse code, it improves reusability in your java application.

The parent class is called the base class or superclass. The child class that extends the base class is called the derived class or subclass or child class.

 

What is Polymorphism?

A concept where an object behaves differently in different situations.

Since the object takes various structures, it is called Polymorphism.

 

In java, we can accomplish it utilizing strategy over-loading and method overriding.

There are 2 sorts of Polymorphism accessible in Java,

Method overloading

For this situation, which technique to opt, will be chosen at the time of compilation itself depend on the number or sort of conditions. 

Method overriding

For this situation, which strategy to call will be chosen at the run time depends upon what article is really pointed to by the reference variable.

 

Functional Programming

Functional programming languages are uncommonly intended to deal with symbolic calculation and list preparing applications. functional programming depends on numerical functions. A portion of the well known functional programming dialects incorporate Lisp, Python, Erlang, Haskell, Clojure, and so forth –

Functional programming languages are sorted into two gatherings, −

Complete Functional Languages − These sorts of functional languages support just the functional parameters, ideal models. For instance − Haskell.

Impure Functional Languages − These sorts of functional languages support useful standards and basic style programming. For instance − LISP.

Characteristics

The most admirable qualities of functional programming are as follows −

Functional programming languages are fabricated on the concept of maths functions that use conditional expressions and recursion to perform computation.

Functional programming supports higher-order functions and lazy evaluation features.

Functional programming languages don’t support flow Controls like loop statements and conditional statements like If-Else and Switch Statements. They directly use the functions and functional calls.

Like OOP, functional programming languages support popular concepts such as Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance, and Polymorphism.

Functional Programming – Advantages

Functional programming offers the following advantages –

Lazy Evaluation − Functional programming supports Lazy Functional Constructs like Lazy Lists, Lazy Maps, etc.

Bugs-Free Code − Functional programming does not support state, so there are no after-effect results and we can write error-free codes.

Efficiency − Functional programs consist of independent units that can work concurrently. As a result, such programs are more effective & efficient.

Efficient Parallel Programming − Functional programming languages have NO  state of mute, so there are no state-change issues. One can program "Functions" to work parallel as "instructions". Such codes support easy reusability and testability.

Supports Nested Functions − Functional programming supports Nested Functions.

As a downside, functional programming needs a huge memory space. As it does not have state, you need to create new objects every time to perform & execute actions.

Functional Programming is used in situations where we have to perform lots of different operations on the same set of data.

Lisp is used for AI applications like Machine learning, language processing, Modeling of speech and vision, etc.

Embedded Lisp interpreters add programmability to some systems like Emacs.

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